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Current issue Volume 6, Issue 3 (June 2022)

  • Exploring Corporate Communication Gaps in Public Institutions Necessitating access to Information Law in Zambia: the Case of Zambia Revenue Authority
    Original Research Article
    Country Zambia
  • Pages 01-17
  • DR DAVID FOYA || Robert Zawe
  • Abstract | pdf Pdf
  • This research paper is entitled exploring corporate communication gaps in public institutions necessitating access to information law in Zambia: the case of Zambia Revenue Authority. The aim of this paper is to examining corporate communication gaps that exit in public institutions that are necessitating the enactment of the Access to Information law in the country. Data was collected by interviews and questionnaires. The study employed exploratory and descriptive research designs. It adopted a mixed methods approach where both the qualitative and quantitative methodologies were employed. The findings reveal that corporate organisations in Zambia, whether public or private, are expected to effectively communicate with their various stakeholders. It is ideally expected that these organisations will keep their stakeholders well informed about what is happening in their respective organisations more especially that most of them have Public Relations (PR) officers whose role is to communicate. The research concluded that public institutions are not doing enough to satisfy the information needs of the public hence the need for the ATI law in the country. The researchers recommend that ZRA as a public institution immediately deals with the challenges that members of the public face when accessing information from the institution.


    • Analysis of Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Total Assets Turnover and Net Profit Margin (NPM) on Stock Returns
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 18-25
    • Zulmitha Sari || Wahyono
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Total Assets Turnover and Net Profit Margin (NPM) to return shares in food and beverage sub-sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2017-2020 period. The research method used in this research is quantitative method. The data used is secondary datanamely in the form of financial statements of companies in the food and beverage sub-sector in 2017 to 2020. The sampling method used purposive sampling method and obtained 14 sample companies for four years of observation (2017-2020) so that there were 46 samples. Hypothesis testing in this study used multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that simultaneously the variables Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Assets Turnover and Net Profit Margin significant effect on stock returns. However, partially Current Ratio variable,Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Assets Turnover and Net Profit Margin has no effect on stock returns.


    • Marketing Mix and Service Quality Dimension as Determinants of Customer Satisfaction on Selected Beach Resorts of IGACOS, Davao Del Norte, Philippines
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 26-37
    • Maricel C. Nacional
    • Introduction | pdf Pdf
    • This study aimed to determine the relationship between the marketing mix, service quality, and customer satisfaction on selected beach resorts in Island Garden City of Samal, Davao del Norte. A descriptive correlational design was used in this study with 300 respondents. To determine the interrelationships between the marketing mix and service quality to customer satisfaction. Pearson product-moment correlation was used in the study. Multiple linear regressions were employed to evaluate the major predictor of customer satisfaction. This analysis revealed that the extent level of the marketing mix as perceived by beach resort guests was high. Still, the level of service quality and customer satisfaction were also very high. Moreover, the marketing mix was moderately significant to customer satisfaction, and service quality was highly correlated to customer satisfaction. On the other hand, the independent variables—marketing mix and service quality could significantly influence customer satisfaction. The researcher recommends the owner should always be on the lookout for new ways to advertise their business.


    • Budget Bias in District and City Goverments in Central Java Province
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 38-48
    • Fahtia Nur Hanifah || Zulfikar Zulfikar
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research is aimed to know the effect of budget ratcheting in local revenue and balancing funds. This study also examines how the effects of budget ratcheting in the relationship between regional income and regional expenditure. This research is categorized as causative research and data analysis tests such as the t-test, F-test, and determination test. The population in this study are all districts and cities in the Province of Central Java which are 29 districts and 6 cities. Sampling in this study was conducted using total sampling. The data in this study were sourced from the report on the realization of regional revenue and expenditure budgets for district and city government in the Province of Central Java in 2016-2018. The results of this study indicate that the budget ratcheting effect in local revenue and balance funds. The results of this study also show that local revenue affects local spending and budget ratcheting to weakens the relationship between the two.


    • Effectiveness of School Counselling Services in Mitigating Bullying Among Secondary School Students in Nyandarua, Kenya
      Original Research Article
      Country Kenya
    • Pages 49-55
    • Karololwanga Njoroge Kung’u || Dr. Rev. Davis Gatua
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • There is an increasing concern on cases of bullying among students which if not mitigated could impact negatively to individual students as well as with their colleagues. School counseling plays an important role by impacting student’s behaviour. This paper investigated the effectiveness of counseling services in mitigating bullying among secondary school students in Nyandarua North Sub-County. The independent variable was the counseling services while the dependent variable was the mitigation of bullying that includes drug abuse, truancy and bullying. The study applied cross sectional survey research design that embraced both quantitative research approach using students’ questionnaires and qualitative approach using counseling teachers’ interview schedules. Multistage sampling comprising of stratification (20 schools), simple random sample (400 students) and purposive sample (20 counseling teachers) techniques were used. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency, percentage and mean with assistance of SPSS (Version 22). It was established that counselling services in schools is done to a little extent. The levels of bullying were rampant. The inferential statistics both correlation and Chi-Square revealed that counselling services positively affects the mitigation of the bullying significantly at 5 % levels of significance. The study recommends that schools should embrace of counselling services as the remedy for bullying in secondary schools.


    • Tourist Attraction Preference and Travel Confidence of Local Tourist during Pandemic in Davao City, Philippines
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 56-63
    • Karen Vienesse I. Tom || Edllen Jhul D. Delos Reyes || Jeralyn C. Maasin || Clarence Joy D. Alcaraz
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The Tourism Industry is one of the most affected by the Covid-19 pandemic impacting tourist attractions and tourist activity. This study aimed to examine the preferred tourist attractions during the pandemic in Davao City and determine the significant relationship between tourist preference and travel confidence. The study obtained a result that corresponds to the null hypothesis. Thus, entail no significant relationship between tourist attraction preference and travel confidence as it shows a low correlation. The findings' implications will have a significant enhancement to their overall tour and travel experience, as well as the availability of options from which to choose based on their interests and preferences, allowing for the development of more effective marketing strategies in destination management and local government. Apart from that, it will help people make decisions while traveling. It supplies tourists with crucial information on Davao City's most popular future destinations. On the other hand, local governments can assess the defects or distracting aspects of lesser-known destinations and plan and encourage development and promotional initiatives to enhance visitor numbers.


    • An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Community Participation in HIV and Aids Mitigation Programs a Case Study of Gwanda District, Zimbabwe
      Original Research Article
      Country Zimbabwe
    • Pages 64-72
    • DR DAVID FOYA || Nkosana Ncube
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The research sought to assess the effectiveness of community participation in Hivand Aids mitigation programs: A Case Study of Gwanda District. The aim of the research was to establish the level of community participation in the planning of HIV and AIDS mitigation programs. And it was meant answer questions such as what is the level of the community participation in implementation of HIV and AIDS mitigation programs? The researchers were used a qualitative research design and collected data through questionnaires and interviews. The study revealed that the community are not involved in all phases of program. The community refuted claim by ASOs they involved in all phases of program. The community does not participate in designing monitoring and evaluation tools. The community is not consulted by organisations from provincial or national level and as result there in no buy- in and projects fail as they are not sustainable as there no sense of ownership and community suffer. The research recommends that the community need to capacitated in running programs to improve in decision making. The community need to involved in designing monitoring and evaluation tools.


    • External and Internal Environmental Factors as Predictors to Business Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Tagum City
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 73-84
    • CHRISTINE JOY F. PICCIO || JIMNANIE A. MANIGO
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The main purpose of this study was to find out whether external and internal environmental factors significantly influence business performance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Tagum City. It was tested at 0.05 level of significance stating that there is no significant relationship between external and internal environmental factors on business performance and there is no domain in the external and internal environmental factors that significantly predict business performance. The respondents of this study were from SMEs that were registered for the first quarter of 2021 in Tagum City. This quantitative, non-experimental design research sought to determine if specific relationships exist between external and internal environmental factors on business performance. Statistical tools used to interpret the data gathered were Mean, Pearson r and Regression Analysis. The independent variables were external and internal environmental factors, while the dependent variable was business performance. Findings from the study revealed that the level of external and internal environmental factors on business performance of SMEs in Tagum City were very high and high, respectively. The results show that there is a significant relationship between external and internal environmental factors on business performance of SMEs in Tagum City. Furthermore, there was a domain found in the internal environmental factors but no domain found in the external environmental factors that predicted business performance.


    • Sustainability of the public debt of WAEMU member states in an approach based on repayment capacity: The case of Senegal
      Original Research Article
      Country Senegal
    • Pages 85-101
    • Dr. Babo Amadou BA
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • In this article we have carried out a study on the level of debt sustainability of Senegal using an implementation of 'stress-test' within the framework of the analysis of the sustainability of the debt (DSA). Empirically, we performed a simulation on three macroeconomic scenarios using the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR) model. From the reference scenarios, we carried out a stress test by simulating an increase in the interest rate of the debt by 2%, an increase in the dollar exchange rate by 30%, and finally an increase in the annual maturity up to at 15%. The results of the stress test showed that Senegal's debt is at a high level of risk, but not in debt distress. Senegal has no payment difficulties. This allows us to say that Senegal's debt is sustainable. This result shows that efforts have been made in the macroeconomic framework imposed by the IMF at the level of the variables of the debt sustainability framework (DSF), specifically the balance of payments, the public sector, debt and GDP.


    • The Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Cooperations and Self Efficacy on Employee Turnover Intention through Job Satisfaction in PT. XYZ
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 102-116
    • Ayu Nurul Huda || Ritha F. Dalimunthe || R Amlys Syahputra Silalahi
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • PT XYZ, hereinafter referred to as XYZ, was initially operating since October 28, 1991 under the name PT ABC which became the forerunner of PT XYZ. It changed its name several times until December 10, 2003, XYZ officially became the name of PT XYZ and became a subsidiary of PT Bank BCD, Tbk. Along with its development, there is a decrease in employee job satisfaction which causes an increase in turnover in the company. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze the effect of emotional intelligence, co-workers and self-efficacy on turnover through job satisfaction as an intervening variable. This type of research is quantitative associative. The population of this study were 189 employees. Sampling using probability sampling technique as many as 126 respondents. Data analysis using path analysis. The results showed that the emotional intelligence variable had a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction, emotional intelligence, co-workers and self-efficacy had a positive and significant effect on turnover intention and job satisfaction had a positive and significant effect on turnover intention.


    • The Influence of Economic, Social, Vision-Mission, Political Affiliates and Candidates' Self-Image on the Trend of Selecting Candidate Head of Regional Head in East Barito District
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 117-131
    • Ariantho || Ujianto | Slamet Riyadi
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research is the extent to which the influence of economic, social, vision-mission, political affiliation, and candidate's self-image on the tendency to choose a regional head candidate in the East Barito district, Central Kalimantan province with the hope that through this research, a candidate for a regional head who is qualified to develop the region both from the economic side to achieve maximum regional development. The results of this study are also expected to have implications for the development of economics, namely in the field of regional economic growth and political marketing at the district/city level. This study concludes that Economics has an insignificant and positive effect on public trust, Social has a positive and significant impact on shared beliefs, Vision-mission has a positive and significant impact on public confidence, Political affiliation has a positive and significant effect on public trust, Self-image has a positive and significant impact on public trust, Economics has a positive and significant effect on the tendency to choose candidates, Social has a positive and significant impact on the propensity to select candidates, Vision-mission has no significant impact on the direction to select candidates, Political affiliation has no significant impact on the movement to select candidates, Self-image has a positive and significant impact on the propensity to choose candidates and public trust has a positive and significant effect on the direction to choose candidates.


    • Investment Decisions on Life Insurance Policy Among Public School Teachers
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 132-145
    • Cris S. Saranza
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The study aimed to identify the factors influencing the investment decisions of public school teachers' life insurance policies in Claver, Surigao del Norte. A quantitative – descriptive survey design was utilized using mean and standard deviation, frequency count and percentage, and analysis of variance. The teachers' profile was the study's independent variable, and its indicators were age, sex, rank position, civil status, and years in service. While the influencing factors such as premium offered, company image, service quality, satisfaction level, and company-client relationship served as the dependent variable. The findings indicate no significant relationship between the influencing factors and the profile variables. The paper recommends that the insurance companies propose new strategies to increase investment through the use of the technology and improve the company's service quality. In addition, school administrators should work with stakeholders in conducting financial literacy programs on insurance investment for the teachers to aid more knowledge in expenses management and future security.


    • Generic Strategies and Effect on Customer Satisfaction at Kenya Power in Nakuru County
      Original Research Article
      Country Kenya
    • Pages 146-156
    • Cherotich Eddah || Daniel M. Wanyoike
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Understanding competition, studying customer needs, evaluating strength and weakness of an organization are important aspects of customer satisfaction strategy. Recent reforms in Energy sector coupled with increasing competition have driven electricity utilities to implement competitive strategies to thrive in a competitive industry. According to Michael Porter, competitive strategy is devised in 3 types; Cost leadership, Differentiation and Market focus. The objective of this research was to evaluate competitive strategies and effect on customer satisfaction at Kenya Power Nakuru County. The study employed a descriptive survey research design in collecting data from respondents. Specifically, this study sought to evaluate competitive strategies that have been implemented, their effectiveness and recommendations. The study involved review of pertinent literature, review of relevant theories and actual data collection and analysis. The population target is 134,740 customers drawn from Kenya Power domestic customer category. A sample size of 97 drawn from sectors in Nakuru County; Lanet, Molo, Naivasha, Nakuru Town, Njoro and Subukia. During pilot study, 10 questionnaires were issued two weeks before the actual study to a group of customers who did not take part in the actual study. 81 customers participated in the study, an 84% response rate, a closed ended questionnaire was used. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics (means, percentages and frequencies) and inferential statistics (correlations and parametric tests such as Pearson correlation). The analysis of the data was performed with the aid of SPSS and Ms Excel and the findings presented in the form of tables and figures. The findings will assist Kenya Power management and other public utilities in carrying out SWOT analysis within their organization and improve competitive strategies for sustainable performance in the competitive industry. Two variables (market focus and differentiation) had a greater influence on customer satisfaction. The respondents were satisfied with Kenya Power products and services to a moderate level. Market focus strategy contributed the most level of satisfaction, followed by differentiation strategy, and lastly cost leadership strategy, cumulatively the generic strategies contributed to 63.9% of customer satisfaction. Future studies should establish the remaining 39.1% factors that influence customer satisfaction in the domestic customer category. A further study aiming at validating the conceptual model could be carried out in other services sectors in the Kenyan economy and public utilities.


    • Coverage of Small-Scale Trade Issues by Print Media in Zambia: The Case of the Daily Nation
      Original Research Article
      Country Zambia
    • Pages 157-167
    • Dr David Foya || Daniel Banda
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The topic of this research paper is coverage of small-scale trade issues by print media in Zambia: The Case of the Daily Nation. This study aimed at determining the coverage of small-scale trade issues in the Daily Nation Newspaper in Lusaka of Zambia. Furthermore, the study examined the amount of space given to the report on the small-scale trade issues, the importance of the issues and how stories about the small-scale trade issues were framed in the newspapers. The study used content analytical and cross-sectional study design and data was collected using questionnaires and a key informant interview guide. The researchers used random and purposive sampling of respondents. The data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results show that most stories on small scale trade issues appeared only 3 to 5 times in the study newspapers. The newspaper did not provide more space for the small-scale traders as most reports were with large font size with about 75 percent while only a few had the least large font size stories with 25 percent. The study concluded that the small-scale trade issues were not given adequate coverage during the period of study. The paper recommends that Zambian print media should consider small scale trade issues weighty enough for prominent, positive and frequent coverage to ensure its growth and promotion in Zambia.


    • Financial Management Practices and Wellness among Employees of Bukidnon Association of Catholic Schools
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 168-183
    • Julsar T. Calonia || Joel B. Tan
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The study aimed to investigate which domain of financial management practices best influences the financial wellness of employees of the Catholic schools under the Bukidnon Association of Catholic Schools (BUACS) in Bukidnon. Using an adapted standardized questionnaire, the researcher surveyed 153 employees from six different Catholic schools in the city of Valencia. The study participants were selected using the stratified-random sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using the mean, Pearson’s r, and multiple regression. Results of the study reveal that the level of financial management practices and financial wellness is moderate. Further, when analyzed as to the relationship that exists between the two variables, the result shows that in an aggregate and singular capacities, the financial management practices statistically correlate with financial wellness. Alternatively, when regressed, the individual domains of financial management practices that posted significant influence on financial wellness are investment, money, unexpected expenses, and general financial management practices. Among the four, the general financial management practices best influences financial wellness.


    • Challenges of Business Process Re-Engineering Implementation in Nigerian Banking operations
      Original Research Article
      Country Nigeria
    • Pages 184-197
    • Waribugo Sylva || Chioma Happiness Wariboko || Adias Lolo Teddy
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This study explored the concept ofBusiness Process Re-engineering (BPR) in Nigerian Banking Operations, with a view to identify its implementationchallenges.The study collated and critically examined several works from different scholars with a view to shed more light on challenges of business process re-engineering in the Nigerian banking sector.Our findings show that although BPR is a dynamic practicein the Nigerian banking operations, there is still a lot more to be done in improving the capabilities of the managers themselves in order to have more successful implementation.Managers of Nigerian banks ought to understand that BPR will be successfully implemented if they engage more in the development of their competences and deploy adequate resources to support the process.This is a descriptive study; as such, the study is devoid of statistical inference. Thus, it would be fruitful for future worksto test quantitative models that contain correlates of BPR, in order to offer practical recommendations on how banks will conduct sustainable Business Process Re-engineering.The study contributes to the literature on Theory of Constraints by identifying the critical challenges encountered by the Nigerian Banking Industry,while implementing Business Process Re-engineering projects.


    • Role of Parental Influence on Bullying Tendencies among High School Students
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 198-213
    • Julsar T. Calonia || John Mar G. Bernaldez || Sheena Crystal Joy Hoyo-a || Jeralyn L. Abanador || John Mark P. Dum-ogan || Naypee C. Vilar
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The study was designed to investigate which domain of parental influence best predicts bullying tendencies among high school students of San Agustin Institute of Technology (SAIT). Using an adapted standardized questionnaire, the researcher surveyed 266 students randomly selected using the random sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using the mean, Pearson's r, and multiple regression. The finding of the investigation reveals that the level of parental influence is high, and the level of bullying tendencies is very low. Furthermore, when analyzed as to the relationship that exists between the two variables, the result shows that in some collective capacities, parental influence is significantly correlated, specifically the parental expectation. Alternatively, when regressed, the individual domain of parental influence that posted significantly predicts bullying tendencies is parental expectation. The finding suggests that parental influence correlates with the risk of committing bullying behavior acts.


    • Trade Union Membership and Employee Compensation Among Nurses in Nakuru Level Five Hospital, Kenya
      Original Research Article
      Country Rwanda
    • Pages 214-223
    • Caroline Jelimo Marti || Dr.Gitahi Njenga || Dr. Gitari James
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Trade unions represent the employees' interest to the employers. The right to form and join a trade union is a fundamental human right. A well-functioning and respected trade union movement is often a good indicator of democracy and standards of human rights. Significant motivations for joining the union are that; it enhances the unity and solidarity of work-force, job security and for securing better working conditions. For this reason, the study investigatedtrade union membership and employee compensation in public health sector in Kenya. A case of nurses working in Nakuru level 5 hospital. More specifically the study investigated the influence of expanded bargaining power, rolein Kenya's public health sector, trade unions play an important role in preventing workplace discrimination and in lowering income disparities on employee remuneration. This study was guided by theories which included; Standard Economic Theory, Industrial Democracy Theory and System Theory. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The study was conducted in Nakuru level 5 hospital in Kenya. The target population for the study were all the unionisable nurses currently working in the hospital. There are 339 nurses working in the hospital. As such the study specifically targeted the 339 nurses in Nakuru Level five hospital in Kenya. The study adopted simple random sampling to pick the 136 nurses from the 339 nurses to be the study‟s respondents. The researcher employed the use of a structured questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was pilot tested where Cronbach alpha coefficient was used to test reliability of the instrument. Data collected was coded and analyzedusing descriptive statistics (frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (correlations and multiple regression) using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and presented using tables. From the findings, expanded bargaining, role of trade unions in eliminating workplace discrimination and role of trade unions in reducing income inequality had a significant influence on employee compensation in public health sector in Kenya. Regression analysis demonstrated that the independent variables taken together could significantly account for 63.6% of the total variation in employee compensation. The study recommended that such study results should be routinely obtained for use in management decision making regarding resource allocation. In conclusion, the study recommended that the research be replicated in other counties in Kenya to examine other factors accounting for the remaining variance of 36.4% so as to enable generalization of these findings.


    • Strategic Supplier Partnerships and Operational Performance of Food and Beverage Manufacturing Firms in Nakuru County, Kenya
      Original Research Article
      Country Kenya
    • Pages 224-230
    • Dorothy Jepchirchir Ngetich || Dr. Jackson Ndolo || Dr. Daniel Wanyoike
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Kenya’s vision 2030 lays emphasis on the growth of the manufacturing sector as one of the key drivers of economic growth. Manufacturing sector contribute an estimated 10% to Gross Domestic Product, create 13% of formal employment and 12.5% of exports in the country. However, food and beverage manufacturing firms face many operational challenges including inadequate supplies of raw materials, high costs and slow development and implementation of policies which are deterrent to their operational performance. The current study sought to establish the influence of strategic supplier partnerships on operational performance of food and beverage manufacturing firms. The study was anchored on relational exchange theory. An explanatory design with a cross-sectional approach was employed. The study targeted 50 procurement staff members from 9 food and beverage manufacturing firms operating in Nakuru County. Census technique was applied thus all the food and beverage manufacturing firms were involved in the study. The study used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data which was analyzed through descriptive and inferential data analysis methods. The study established that there was a strong and positive correlation [r= 0.702**] between strategic supplier partnershipsand operational performance of food and beverage manufacturing firms. Regression analysis results revealed that the beta coefficient was [β= 0.459; p= 0.000]. Therefore, the relationship between strategic supplier partnerships and operational performance was significant. This implies that the strategic supplier partnerships influenced operational performance of food and beverage manufacturing firms. Based on the findings, it is recommended that food and beverage manufacturing firms should focus more on establishing and maintaining strategic supplier partnerships to promote cost reduction and efficiency for better operational performance.


    • The role of financial indicators inenhancing Human Development:A case study of Gulf Countries
      Original Research Article
      Country Kuwait
    • Pages 231-238
    • Dr. Ruba Aljaralla
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • A well-developed financial system promotes the effective sharing of saving by supporting access to financial institutions and lowering transaction costs. It also monitors transactions through the regulatory organizations, promotes an efficient market by exchanging services, goods, technology, and knowledge, as well as reduces uncertainty through efficient risk management methods. The present study examines the impact of financial indicators related to the banking sector on the Human Development Index (HDI). A GMM approach is applied by using the data from 1996 to 2018. Gulf countries are taken as a case study. The results showthatbank credits to bank deposits, credit to private sector and banking concentration have a positive relationship with the HDI. However, the bank cost to income ratioshows a negative relationship with the HDI. Thisindicates that the higher bank operating expenses in Gulf countries were negatively related to human development. The bank net interest margin and credit to government sectors show a negative relationship with HDI. Thus, it is recommended to decrease the operating expenses, minimize the credit ratio to government sector and increase the share of private sector to enhance HDI.


    • Financial Literacy and Financial Behavior: Predictors of Financial Stress among Employees of Catholic Schools
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 239-250
    • Julsar T. Calonia
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The current researchers aimed to ascertain the association and influence of financial knowledge and financialbehavior towards financial stress among Bukidnon Association of Catholic Schools (BUACS) employees. Using a standardized and well-structured survey questionnaire, the researchers surveyed 253 employees from six different Catholic schools in the City of Valencia, Bukidnon, under the Bukidnon Association of Catholic Schools (BUACS). The study participants were selected using stratified random sampling techniques. In addition, the gathered data was analyzed using Pearson's r moment correlations and linear regression analysis. The result reveals that all variables were moderate level.Further, when analyzed using the correlation test among variables, the findings confirmed that financial literacy and management practices were significantly correlated with financial stress. Alternatively, when regressed, financial literacy and management behaviorsignificantly influenced financial stress. Thus, the present study's hypothesis confirmed that employees lacked understanding, and poor financial behavior led to financial stress.


    • Proposed Production Scheduling Using Non-Delay Algorithm to Reduce Makespan (Case Study: PT. XYZ)
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 251-262
    • Moh. Fakhruddin Farhan
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • PT. Xyz is a manufacturing company that produces piano musical instruments. There are two types of pianos produced, namely Grand Piano and Upright Piano. Where each type has a variety of models. Due to the diversity of piano models and types, companies had to divide the work. There are sections of woodworking, assembly, and painting. Each part has a different production process. In the Cabinet Side section, the system flow in production belongs to the workshop category because many models and cabinets are manufactured using different machines. This causes the Cabinet side to experience problems, namely the difficulty of achieving daily targets. Ineffective resource allocation and scheduling are at the root of the problem. The current scheduling system is the FCFS system or items that arrive earlier will be processed earlier. In other conditions, the Cabinet Side Section schedules the most targeted cabinets that are planned to be produced to be prioritized in their work. Based on this, this study aims to reduce makespan by designing a production scheduling proposal using a non-delay algorithm method for several machines. The object under study is the B1 and B3 cabinet models because they have the most productive targets among other models. The data that has been processed produces a makespan from the company's actual schedule of 321.66 minutes with the order of completion J3-J8-J7-J5-J6-J2-J1-J4. Scheduling with a non-delay algorithm method produces a makespan of 277.31 minutes with the order of completion of work J8-J3-J5-J7-J6-J2-J4-J1. The proposed scheduling non-delay algorithm method is able to reduce makespan by 13.78% or 44.35 minutes. This proves that this method is good for companies to implement. This is supported by the resulting efficiency index value greater than 1 (E > 1) which is 1.16, meaning that the performance of the non-delay algorithm method is better than the actual completion of the company's processes.


    • Total Quality Management and Innovation as Predictors to Determinants of Survival among MSMES in COVID19 Pandemic
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 263-270
    • Egie Boy Cauba || Stilo Floyd Schneider
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The primary purpose of this study was to find out whether total quality management and innovation significantly predict the determinants of survival among MSMEs. It was tested at a 0.05 level of significance stating there is no significant relationship between total quality management and innovation on the determinants of survival of MSMEs. The findings revealed that total quality management and innovation of MSMEs were both high. The results show a significant relationship between total quality management and innovation on the determinants of survival among MSMEs. There is no domain in total quality management and innovation that significantly predict the determinants of survival among MSMEs. Furthermore, a significant influence on the determinants of survival was found in the domains of total quality management and innovation.


    • The Effect of Profitability, Liquidity, Activity, Dividend Policy, and Firm Size on Firm Value
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 271-284
    • Evi Suntia Rumadaul || Nursiam
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The company has long-term goal is to maximize shareholder wealth than can be reached by maximizing the firm's value. This study aims to examine the effect of profitability, liquidity, activity, dividend policy and firm size on firm value. This research was conducted using secondary data collected from the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) and the websites of each company. The sample selection method uses purposive sampling in mining companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2016-2020. Data analysis techniques used in this study are multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that profitability, liquidity, activity, and firm size has an affect on firm value. Whereas dividend policy did not effect firm value.


    • The Effect of Operating Profit, Audit Tenure, Auditor Switching and Company Size on Audit Delay
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 285-296
    • Ayu Khoirunnisa Supriyanto || Nursiam
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the effect of operating profit, audit tenure, auditor switching and company size on audit delay in LQ 45 Index companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2016 – 2020. The research method used in this study is a quantitative method. The data used is secondary data in the form of financial statements of the LQ 45 Index companies in 2016 - 2020. The sampling method uses the purposive sampling method and obtained 28 sample companies for five years of observation (2016-2020) so that there are 140 samples. Hypothesis testing in this study used multiple linear regression analysis using SPSS version 25 program. The results showed that the audit tenure positive and significant effect on audit delay with a sig value of 0.000 while company size had a negative and significant effect on audit delay with a sig value of 0.000. The operating profit variables and auditor switching have no effect on audit delay with sig values of 0.122 and 0.857, respectively.


    • Evaluation of Online Education: The Case of Cotabato State University- College of Business and Public Administration
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 297-301
    • Emraida C. Ali || Noraida C. Ali
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Thisutilized the descriptive-survey method to describe the level and to determine the relationship of the respondents’ online self-efficacy, asynchronous interaction, synchronous interaction, and their preference to online education. The results show that respondents’ level of online self-efficacy is manifested by their familiarity to use the Google classroom. Moreover, in terms of the interaction of the respondents in asynchronous, the respondents agree that it offers both an advantage and disadvantage. For instance, if they don’t have good internet connection, no available mobile data, or no power supply they can answer the offline activities at their own time and convenience. However, there are also instances in which they can hardly understand the activities posted in the Google class and teacher intervention is deemed necessary. On the other hand, the interaction of the respondents in synchronous, the respondents explained that they appreciate the online classes because they can listen to the lesson of the professor and its discussion. However, due to financial restrictions, the subscribed mobile data allowance is very limited since web conferencing needs more data usage. The level of preference of the respondents to online education or their desirability to online education shows that the respondents agree to some extent or desired to some extent on the flexibility of schedule and group interaction and collaboration for online education. The Pearson Correlation Coefficients for online self-efficacy is .510; asynchronous interaction is .619; and for synchronous interaction is .604. Using the stepwise method the asynchronous interaction and synchronous interaction are determined to be significantly related with online education. In the model, the R or correlation coefficient is .647 which denotes a moderate correlation.


    • Effect of Entrepreneur’s Attributes on Financial Performance of Private Security Firms in Kenya
      Original Research Article
      Country Kenya
    • Pages 302-310
    • Paul Kuria || Evans Oteki || Tabitha Karanja || George Gathogo
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The study investigated the effect of entrepreneur attributes on the financial performance of private security firms Kenya. Further, the research employed a descriptive survey research design with a census of 75 private security firms. Both primary and secondary data was used in this study. Primary data was collected using questionnaires as the main tool for data collection. The instrument was pretested to ensure validity and reliability of each construct measurements before actual study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were used to describe the basic features of the data. Simple univariate regression was applied to examine the effect of entrepreneur attributes on financial performance of private security firms in Kenya. The study established that entrepreneur attributes had a significant direct effect on private security firms’ financial performance. The study recommended that the owners/mangers of private security firms should have the required professional attributes that can enable their businesses thrive. They should employee managers with the required academic qualifications.


    • The role of management in the organization the importance of small and medium enterprises in economy
      Original Research Article
      Country Romania
    • Pages 311-318
    • Dr. George Popa
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This paper examines the relevance and the role of management in the organization, main principles and techniques of management to improve effectiveness and efficiency in the management process. The principles should guide managers in decision making and action. The article examines whether the guidelines are useful or not. In our opinion anything which makes management research more efficient will help others to improve management practice. These strategies and tools might be useful for those who are interested in obtaining results without spending so much time, resources and energy for activities that do not lead to the aimed purposes within a company or enterprise, having the role of directing people to get more rapidly to their goals. In this article, managers could find out some effective tools and techniques, as well as references to small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which can be used in different fields of the organization, that facilitate creating an efficient strategy, as well as on organizational, communicational and teamwork purposes, to successfully deliver a top-notch project.


    • A Structural Equation Model on Business Performance of Micro-Enterprises
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 319-331
    • Alicia N Sulayon || Eugenio S Guhao Jr.
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The primary aim of this research endeavor was to come up with a model for business performance as influenced by market orientation, organizational learning, and entrepreneurial orientation. A descriptive-causal design utilizing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was employed. Through a stratified random sampling method, there were 420 business owners and employees in Region XI who were surveyed using an adapted questionnaire. Findings revealed that market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation obtained a very high level of mean scores while organizational learning gained a high level of mean score. Further, a relationship exists between market orientation, organizational learning, entrepreneurial orientation, and endogenous business performance. The generated model exhibited a causal relationship between business performance, market orientation, organizational orientation, and organizational learning orientation. The model also expressed a new concept showing that the endogenous business performance of micro-businesses was determined by the two remaining measures: measure and analysis and innovation and learning which is further influenced by the exogenous market orientation defined by its retained indicators: customer orientation and inter-functional coordination which is substantiated by entrepreneurial orientation as evidenced by the remaining constructs: proactiveness and competitive-aggressiveness and finally reinforced by organizational learning orientation supported by the internal acquisition of knowledge and external acquisition of knowledge.


    • Effect of Current Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Return on Assets and Net Profit Margin on Stock Prices
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 332-339
    • Yuli Tri Cahyono || Umi Nur Fina
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This study aims to determine and analyze the effect ofCurrent Ratio, Debt to Equity Ratio, Return on AssetsandNet Profit Marginto share prices in food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2020. The research method used in this study is a quantitative method. The data used is secondary data in the form of financial statements of food and beverage companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2017 to 2020. The sampling method usespurposive samplingand obtained 13 companies. Thus, during the four years of observation (2017-2020) there were 52 samples analyzed. Hypothesis testing in this study using multiple regression analysis. The results showed thatCurrent RatioandNet Profit Margininfluential, whileDebt To Equity RatioandReturn On Assetshas no effect on stock prices


    • Trends of Business Oriented Farming with Modern Technique: An Empirical Study of Poultry Farming in Darjeeling District of West Bengal
      Original Research Article
      Country India
    • Pages 340-344
    • Dr.Chinmoy Sarkar || Subham Kumar Jha
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Animal husbandry is an important part of the Indian Rural economy. It provides large employment opportunities to landless, small and marginal farmers and contribute a significant food basket with full of nutrient values to millions of peoples. There are four major types of animal husbandry present in India say Dairy farming, poultry farming, fish farming and bee farming. The poultry farming industry has evolved in the 21st century from small farms to industry to relatively few large vertically integrated companies.It has shown phenomenal growth averaging about 10 per cent in egg production and 15-20 per cent in broiler production annually. Poultry farming egg and meat, in recent years, have become important and popular food for the 68 per cent of the non-vegetarian population of the country. Consequently their consumption is increasing from day to day. Poultry farming in India has transformed from a mere tool of supplementary income and nutritious food for the family to the major commercial activity generating the required revenue.


    • M& A In the Banking Industry – Suitability and Complementarity of Business Strategy as Drivers to Improve Synergy Realization
      Original Research Article
      Country Germany
    • Pages 345-352
    • Frank Thole
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • While facing accelerating consolidation and an increasing number of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the banking industry in Germany, there is evidence that in a significant number of cases, the expected synergies have not been achieved after the M&A integration projects. An important reason is an insufficient focus on the suitability and complementarity of the target and the bidder’s business strategies in the context of synergy realization of M&A transactions. Although there may be a macro-level understanding in the current research, this study is designed to provide deeper insights into the degree of strategic cost and product orientation, external relatedness concerning target markets, combination potential, and entrepreneurial orientation, which maximizes synergy realization and reduces corresponding failure rates. This study relies on a sample of 263 online survey responses from M&A transactions of the banking industry in Germany, including cross-border transactions. The research strategy follows a quantitative approach, an empirical study with primary data gathered from an online survey with experienced M&A project and change managers. The study is highly relevant for both the academic world as well as decision-makers responsible for M&A transactions, as the results provide an in-depth understanding of synergy realization to gain new insights and improve M&A success rates, while differentiating and looking at the specifics of the German banking groups including cross-border M&A transactions.


    • Testing of the Structure of Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer Composite Panels Due to Blast Explosion Using C-Scan Ultrasonic Test Aid
      Original Research Article
      Country Indonesia
    • Pages 353-364
    • Rosihan Ramin || Heriana || Bondan Tiara Sofyan || Mas Ayu Elita Hafizah
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Ultrasonic testing (ultrasonic testing) utilizes high-frequency sound waves to detect damage to a material, composite or workpiece. This test is commonly used to inspect materials made of metal or plastic, as long as the material is not absorbent. In its application, ultrasonic testing uses a workpiece vibrating device called a probe. Ultrasonic waves emitted by the probe will vibrate the atoms in the test material or workpiece. The most ideal method for inspecting defects in composites is the immersion method. The size of the immersion tank must be considered as well as possible in order to accommodate the test object of the required size. C-Scan provides data about the location, size, and shape of the defects that occur, besides C-Scan with very high resolution can produce very detailed images. The specimen tested was a laminated composite made of C-glass/epoxy with material properties. The specimen is in the form of a square with a size of 150mmx100mm (referring to ASTM-D7136-12), the test specimen has a thickness of 2.5 mm and is given an impact load with an energy of 11.3 Joules. Stacking sequence of the test specimen, marking and representing the orientation of the fibers in a single layer (layer) of woven composite. After being given an impact load, there is damage in the form of delamination on the plate. plate damage can be detected by back light and numerical simulation.


    • Employability and Work Environment as Predictors to Employee Productivity of Banks Employees
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 365-382
    • Marites D. Paquibulan || Stilo Floyd Schneider
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The main purpose of this study was to find out if employability and work environment significantly influence employee productivity of banks employees of Davao del Norte and Davao de Oro. The 255 respondents of this study are from 27 banks of Davao del Norte and Davao de Oro. The statistical tools used to interpret the data gathered were Mean, Pearson-r, and Multiple Regression Analysis. The independent variables were employability and work environment, while the dependent variable was employee productivity. Findings from the study revealed that employability got a mean of 4.33 which means very high.This indicates that the level of employability is very much observed. And, work environment received a mean of 4.20 which means very high, this indicates that the level of work environment is very much observed. On the other hand, employee productivity got a mean score of 4.31 which means very high, this indicates that the level of employee productivity is very much observed. Moreover, the result shows a significant relationship between employability and work environment on employee productivity. Also, all the domains of the variables mentioned above significantly predict the employee productivity of bank employees of Davao del Norte and Davao de Oro. Thus, a better employability and work environment would positively contribute to increasing employee productivity.


    • Organizational Culture and Interpersonal Trust as Predictorsto Individual Work Performance among Employees
      Original Research Article
      Country Philippines
    • Pages 383-404
    • Arna Marie B. Ocariz || Stilo Floyd Schneider
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • The major goal of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between organizational culture, interpersonal trust, and individual employee performance. Organizational culture and interpersonal trust are not domains that predict individual work performance among employees. The study's respondents are 225 service utility company personnel from two provinces: Davao del Norte and Davao de Oro. This descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional research aimed to see if there is a relationship between organizational culture and interpersonal trust in individual work performance. Mean, Person-r, and Regression Analysis were the statistical tools utilized to interpret the data. Individual work performance was the dependent variable, whereas organizational culture and interpersonal trust were the independent variables. This study revealed that all three variables, organizational culture, interpersonal trust, and individual work performance, were very high. The findings indicate a relationship between organizational culture and employee interpersonal trust in individual work performance. In addition, a domain is determined between the variables mentioned above that predict individual work performance.


    • Employee Motivation and Organisational Performance during the COVID-19 Pandemic
      Original Research Article
      Country Zimbabwe
    • Pages 405-418
    • Mukwasani, A || Bhebhe, T || Sengerai, T || Mufudza, T
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • Empirical evidence has shown that motivated employees bring about better organizational performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact that motivation or lack of it has caused on the overall performance of organisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Face to face interviews and questionnaires were used to collect datafrom 100 employees and data was analysed using the SPSS version 20.The study found out that strategies like providing adequate resources, drafting COVID-19 policies and protocols, rewarding employees for achieving targets, recognition of good work, communicating effectively and training were of paramount importance during the pandemic to sustain business and boost employee confidence. It was concluded that employee motivation positively affects financial performance. The study recommended that benefits for employees should be increased during times of pandemics in order to increase the company’s competitive advantage and avoid losing market share.


    • The Impact of Emotional Intelligence on the Virtual Work Performance in Exponential Organizations
      Original Research Article
      Country Jordan
    • Pages 419-429
    • Prof. Refat Alfaouri || Miss. Shahed Al-Malhi
    • Abstract | pdf Pdf
    • This research revolved around how emotional intelligence impacts on virtual work performance in exponential organizations. By knowing how technological development has affected traditional organizations to turn into exponential organizations and their work performance.

      The sub-objectives:

      I. How do employees' emotional intelligence, and their relationships within the organization affect work performance.
      II. Does the exponential thinking have an impact on the performance of the virtual work within the exponential organization.
      III. Does the creative and innovative employees, have an exponential thinking.

      This study used quantitative approaches. It is conducted using a survey methodology and as a primary source of data. The population consisted of (13) exponential organization in Jordan, and a sample of (440) manager and employee has been chosen. The results of the study indicated that there are no differences in the opinions of the study sample individuals about the Impact of emotional intelligence on virtual work performance in exponential organizations, as it was found that there is no difference in the opinions of males and females, also it was found that there is no difference in opinions according to position. It was also found that there is a positive correlation relationship with statistical significance between emotional intelligence and virtual work performance.